Authorship Guidelines


Who Should Be Included as an Author?

The decision of who to include as an author can sometimes be difficult. We suggest using the following guidelines when deciding authorship.

Authorship should include individuals who have:

  • Made a significant contribution to the conception and design of the study
  • Made an essential contribution in the actual accrual or analysis of data
  • Participated in drafting the article or reviewing and/or revising it for content

Order of Authors

There are no hard and fast rules here. In an article in Nature (2006;440:591-592), it was noted that "Biologists tend to place a supervisor or lab head last in an author list [while] organic chemists might put him or her first." We would suggest that the first author should be the person who leads the study and makes a major contribution to the work, while the second author should be a coÔÇÉinvestigator for the study, second only to the first author in terms of contribution to the project. The remaining authors should be listed in order of their contribution to the study. Order of authors, as well as who to include as authors, should be determined early in the research process. One special note here - presence or absence of an investigator on the original IRB paperwork does not necessarily determine who will be the authors on a paper or presentation. For more detailed information regarding authorship, please contact the GRMEP Research Department.

Who Should Be Acknowledged?

Those who do not meet the criteria for authorship, but who have made a contribution towards the study, presentation, or manuscript, should be acknowledged. This includes people who provide funds, technical services, materials, statistical analysis, etc.